1. Simple digital gates in LOG can be described entirely in the modest interpreted language described here. For more complicated functionality, for displays and user interaction, or for access to the gate's attributes, you must write Pascal code using a CALL statement. The interpreted language is usually referred to as "LOGED language," though it is really part of the digital simulator, not of LOGED proper. The language is also called Gate Description Language, or GDL. 2. A GDL program consists of a sequence of statements, displayed one per line. These statements are typically either assignments to pins or variables, or IF/ELSE/END constructions. GDL contains no loops, arrays, or arithmetic. The program is executed once per LOG time-step, from top to bottom, performing boolean operations on values in the gate. 3. Resources available to a GDL program are pins, notated as in "#3"; internal nodes, notated as in "##6"; and state variables, such as "A", "P", or "V26". A state variable is much like a Pascal variable; an assignment to it replaces the previously assigned value, and lasts until the next assignment. It is a 1-bit quantity whose value is interpreted as a boolean logic 1 or 0. A pin or internal node is a true LOG node; it uses a five-valued logic (One, Zero, undriven or "None", and weak One and Zero) and must be assigned to once per time-step. The assigned value does not show up on the node until the next time-step. If the gate uses only nodes (no state variables), the order of execution of statements within the gate is essentially arbitrary. 4. Pin numbers range from 1 to the number of pins on the gate. The 16 state variables A through P are always available. For internal nodes and additional state variables, you can use the INST statement described below. All state variables are initially Zero when the gate is created. 4. Each GDL statement must be one of the following: < variable > = < expression > Assign the value of the expression to the variable. The previous value of the variable is replaced. This is exactly like a variable assignment in a conventional language. If the value of the expression's value is None, the variable is set to One. < node > = < expression > Output the value of the expression to the pin or internal node. If two statements (in the same or different gates) output conflicting values to the node in the same time-step, a conflict is registered on the node. Outputting None to a node has no effect. < node > = PULLUP or PULLDN Output a weak One or Zero (respectively) to the node. This essentially registers a default value for the node; if no other GDL statement assigns a strong value to the node in this time-step, the weak default will be used. A strong value overrides a weak value without conflict. A conflict will be registered if the node is weakly pulled to One and Zero simultaneously. < node > '< ' < expression > Output an open-collector value to the node. If the expression's value is Zero, it is driven to the node. If the expression's value is One or None, the node is left alone. IF < condition > < expression > < statements > ELSE < statements > END If the condition is satisfied, the first set of statements are executed. Otherwise, the second set (if any) are executed. The conditions available cover all possibilities of One, Zero, and None values for the expression: IF x True if x=One or None. IFONE x True if x=One. IFZN x True if x=Zero or None. IFZERO x True if x=Zero. IFCONN x True if x=One or Zero. IFNONE x True if x=None. CALL < procedure-name > Call the Pascal procedure specified. The name has the usual "modulename_procedurename" form. If there is are CALL statements in a gate's procedure, those procedures are called in order when the gate is simulated, drawn, tapped, created, destroyed, copied, configured, etc. INST < num-nodes > , < num-vars > This statement, if used, must be the first statement of the program (before even comments and blank lines). The statement "INST 17,6" reserves 17 internal nodes, ##0 through ##16, and 6 additional state variables, V0 through V5, for the gate. If the number of variables is zero, it and the comma can be omitted. 5. GDL statements may also be blank lines or comments. A comment line begins with a "#" not followed by a digit. Blank lines and comments do have a small impact on the simulator's performance. 6. A GDL expression is a series of "factors" joined by binary operators. All operators have the same precedence and are evaluated left-to-right. In the following list of operators, X is any expression and Y is any factor. x AND y Boolean AND, OR, or exclusive OR of X and Y. If x OR y either X or Y is None, the result is the other input. x XOR y If both are None, the result is None. x NAND y Equivalent to "NOT (x AND y)". x NOR y Equivalent to "NOT (x OR y)". x SAME y Both X and Y must be pins. Equal to One if both pins are connected to the same electrical node, or Zero if the pins are not on the same node. 7. A GDL factor is either an expression in parentheses, or one of the following (X is any factor; P is any pin or internal node): < var > A state variable. The result is One or Zero depending on the current value of the variable. < node > A pin number or internal node. The result is either One, Zero, or None, depending on the value driven on the node in the previous time-step. ONE The constant value, One. This can also be written "TRUE" or "1". ZERO The constant value, Zero. Also "FALSE" or "0". NOT x The result is One if X is Zero, Zero if X is One, or None if X is None. RISE p The result is One if the specified node is receiving a rising transition, that is, the previous time-step drove the pin to a One, but the time-step before that drove it to a Zero. Otherwise, the result is Zero. FALL p The result is One if the specified node is receiving a falling (One to Zero) transition. FIX x The value of X, with None converted to Zero. STRONG p The result is One or Zero if the specified node was driven by a strong (i.e., normal) value on the previous time-step, or None if the node was undriven or was only weakly driven. 8. For examples of GDL programs, consult the many gates in the files "log.cnf" and "actel.cnf".

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