Other Simulation Features
1. If there are any circuit elements with unconnected pins, AnaLOG
will refuse to simulate. If you meant to leave the pin
unconnected, you must connect it to something like a "dummy"
capacitor to ground. If there are unconnected gates, the
NUMBERS icon will display a message of the form "OPAMP is
unconnected". Digital LOG doesn't mind unconnected pins on
2. If you give a ":DIM" command, AnaLOG gates will be drawn in dim
colors until they are fully connected. Another ":DIM" turns this
mode off. This command only works with the analog simulator.
3. Select Probe in the Cursor menu (or press the "." key) to enable
Probe mode. The cursor changes to a different style arrow; when
you move this arrow over a gate or wire, a message below the
AnaLOG NUMBERS icon shows the internal state of the gate and/or
node. In Digital LOG, the lines at the bottom of the screen light
up according to the state of the node being probed. Probe mode
also displays the name of a gate being touched. Select again
to turn the mode off. You can also press "e" or "x"
("Examine") for a temporary Probe mode which turns off
automatically when you click the right button.
4. Select Glow in the Cursor menu (or press the "g" key) to enable
Glow mode. Wires "glow" in colors according to the voltages
they carry. In AnaLOG:
Black means at (or below) ground.
Dark red means within one transistor threshhold of ground.
Red means an intermediate voltage.
Pink means within one transistor threshhold of VDD.
White means at (or above) VDD.
Green means the wire is not driven by an analog gate.
In digital LOG:
Black means the wire carries a Zero.
Red means the wire carries a One.
Green means the wire is not driven.
Glow mode may be left on at all times, though it may make the
simulation a little slower.
5. Select Simulation in the Misc menu (or press the "o" key)
to turn the simulator off or back on again. When simulation is
off, the gates and nodes of the circuit appear to freeze at their
last simulated values. Turning the simulator back on resumes the
6. Press the "t" key to simulate for one time-step, then stop.
You can press t as many time as you wish to see the simulation
evolve, then press o to turn full-speed simulation back on.
7. LOG tries to balance simulation speed against response time for
the mouse and keyboard. If you let go of the mouse and don't press
any keys, LOG slowly shifts the balance to prefer simulation.
When you again use the mouse or keyboard the balance reverts to
favoring editing. You can press the "f" key to switch
immediately to "fast" mode (preferring simulation over editing).
1. Numbers are great, but real people like to see plots of their
output waveforms. In LOG, the mechanism for this is called
Scope mode. To use it, first connect terminals (TO or FROM)
to each signal to be monitored and give the signals unique
names, then select SCOPE in the Misc menu, or press the "s"
key. The scope can display both digital and analog signals.
2. The Scope screen consists of a large field of dots representing
the "divisions" on a normal scope face, an area to the left of
the dots where signal names can go, and some menu words at the
bottom. Use the mouse as usual to select menu words for the
functions that you want. In particular, touch QUIT (there's
one on each side, for your convenience!) or hit Control-C to
return to the circuit diagram.
3. To display a certain signal on the scope, just type the name
of the signal and press ENTER. The name will appear somewhere
at the left edge. You can use the mouse to press and drag the
name to any vertical location. To remove a signal name, drag
it off the top or bottom edge.
4. Initially, the scope is not "triggered," so nothing is
displayed. To begin taking data, touch Trigger. The scope
also automatically triggers when you reset the simulation; there
is a handy Reset on the menu too. A few moments after you
trigger the scope, lines to the right of the signal names
will begin to appear.
5. In all probability, the lines will be absurdly wide or
ridiculously thin. In other words, the time scale is wrong.
To fix this, press the "<" or ">" keys to shrink or expand
(respectively) the plot until it fits nicely on the screen.
You can also use the arrow keys to scroll around the plots in time;
by scrolling and expanding you can focus in on any part of the
6. Touch Config to change the various Scope mode parameters.
You will find here the seconds-per-division and seconds-at-
left-edge parameters that the zoom and scroll commands
manipulate graphically; you can set them numerically if you
prefer. The current time and timestep are displayed for
your reference in setting these values.
7. Scope mode has a limit on the number of data points it will
take before stopping, initially 2000. You can set this in
the Config screen, but beware that if you set it too high
AnaLOG will run out of memory and lose ALL of your data!.
This screen also displays the number of data points taken
so far. What happens when this reaches the maximum depends
on the "trigger mode" attribute:
Manual: Scope starts taking data when you touch
"Trigger," and stops when you touch "Trigger"
again, or when all the data points are used.
Beware that when memory fills, there is no way
to resume taking data except by retriggering
and losing all of your old data! LOG prints
warning messages when you are about to run
out of data points.
On Reset: Like Manual, but also triggers automatically
on RESET. This is the default mode.
Triggered: Like Manual, but also triggers automatically
when a triggering pulse is detected on the
signal that you specify. Not relevant for
AnaLOG, because triggering on analog signals
has not yet been implemented.
Continuous: Triggers manually or on RESET. When data
memory is full, old data points are removed
from the left and new ones added to the
right. Never stops triggering unless you
turn it off by hand.
On Reset mode is typically used when you are interested in the
first data points of a long simulation; Continuous mode is for
when you are interested in the most recent data points.
Note that the word "Trigger" is lit whenever the Scope is taking
data, and unlit otherwise.
8. Normally, Scope mode records exactly one data point per timestep
returned by the simulator. The "minimum timestep" and "maximum
timestep" attributes can modify this. If you would like to
conserve memory and take data points only at, say, 100us intervals,
you could set "minimum timestep" to 100us. Scope mode will then
record a data point only if it's been at least 100us since the last
point was taken. The other attribute, "maximum timestep," does
not work with the analog simulator.
9. When you touch (instead of dragging) a signal name on the left edge,
you Configure the parameters for that signal's particular trace. In
AnaLOG, you can set volts-per-division, plus an "origin" voltage for
plotting small signals (for example, if you have a signal that
varies slightly around 2V, set the origin to 2V and the scale to,
say, 50mV per division). You can also change the color of the
trace, very helpful for plotting several traces on top of one
another. You can also set logarithmic mode, in which case you
specify "Vzero" which is the voltage to plot at the origin, with one
decimal order of magnitude per division above and below.
10. To plot an AnaLOG current, you must take an ISCOPE gate, which is
the funny-looking meter with a hook coming out the back, connect it
to the pin to be measured, and connect a terminal (TO or FROM) to
the "hook." Now, when you monitor that name in Scope mode, you will
measure Amps instead of Volts. Note that the "hook" pin of the
ISCOPE is a special "current-mode" data type, and any attempt to
connect it to a normal analog signal will fail. If an ISCOPE ever
appears to undergo spontaneous combustion, it is because you put it
down with the hook touching an analog wire.
11. If you try pressing down the mouse anywhere in the grid of dots,
you will get a horizontal and/or vertical line whose meaning
depends on two indicators at the bottom of the screen:
Absolute: Display the value of time, or of the
currently-selected signal, that corresponds
to the mouse position.
Delta: Display the difference in time or signal
value that corresponds to the distance between
the current mouse position, and the position at
which it was first pressed down.
Value: Display the value of the current signal as
of the time that corresponds to the mouse
position. For example, you move the mouse to
the "2.3ns" point, and the Scope displays the
value that the current signal had at that time.
Slope: Display the slope of the line between the
starting and current mouse positions, where
rise is measured in the units of the current
signal, and run is measured in seconds.
Time Display absolute or delta time, in seconds.
Freq Display delta time, in Hz (= 1/seconds).
Signal Display the value of the signal whose name is
highlighted, in Volts or Amps. As you touch
this word, each signal is highlighted one by
one. You can also select a current signal
by tapping its trace on the screen.
12. The word ON is a "power switch" for the simulation. If you touch
it, it changes to OFF and the simulation halts. When you touch it
again, simulation continues. (In the circuit-diagram screen, this
function is called Simulation in the Misc menu.)
13. When you touch Dump, the Scope writes out all of the data into a
file in a standard format. You may want to do this in order to
use a more hefty data analysis tool with data generated by AnaLOG.
The CNS 182 "View" program is one such tool, with a special "aload"
command for loading AnaLOG dump files. MATLAB is another possibility;
Michael Godfrey has written a tool to convert Dump output to
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